Flame Synthesis of Advanced Nanomaterials

Flame Synthesis of Advanced Nanomaterials


Flame synthesis offers the potential for high-volume continuous production at reduced costs and is widely used in industry. Nanoparticles commonly produced using flames by industry leaders of Cabot, Cristal Global, DuPont, and Evonik, covering carbon black, fumed SiO2, and TiO2.
Typical production volume through flame synthesis by industry is on the order of 100 metric tons per day. A key advantage of using flames for material synthesis is that it readily provides high temperature necessary for gas phase reactions. Additionally, flames can naturally provide a carbonizing or oxidizing environment. 

A key challenge facing the industry is that flame reactors are usually built for a single-component product, while the possibility of modifying reactor’s operational parameters, including temperature, fuel-to-oxidizer ratio, and precursor loading rate, is limited. These operational parameters play a critical role in the growth of nanoparticles.  It is therefore, important to develop flame reactors that will allow for a wide range of growth parameters and that can be easily scaled.

The use of flames for nanoparticle production is not as widely studied for material synthesis when compared to solution synthesis, but it offers several key advantages such as scalability and cost effectiveness. Hence, it is critical to dedicate future research efforts that will enable the production of advanced nanomaterials using flames. 

The focus of our research is to investigate the use of various flame configurations, such as diffusion, premixed, and spray flames in both laminar and turbulent mode for the scalable growth of nanomaterials.  Also a fundamental study of the flame process, from precursor vaporization to particle formation is paramount in designing future flame reactors, thus it will be a core focus of our research. Finally, our goal is to develop numerous advanced metal-oxides that can enable future applications in catalysis, storage devices, solar cells, and medical devices. 



Ethylene Flame Photos

Propane Flame Photos

TEM Result



  • Mohamed A. Ismail, Nasir K. Memon, Morkous  S. Mansour, Dalaver H. Anjum, and Suk Ho Chung, Curved wall-jet burner for synthesizing titania and silica nanoparticles, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 2014, PROCI-D-13-00362. Accepted
  • r H. AnjumNasir K. Memon, and Suk Ho Chung, Investigating the growth mechanism and optical properties of carbon-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles, Materials Letters, Vol. 108 (2013) 134–138.​
  • Dalaver H. Anjum, Nasir K. Memon, and Suk Ho Chung, Multiple-diffusion flame synthesis of pure anatase and carbon-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles, Combustion and Flame, Vol. 160(9) (2013) 1848–1856.​
  • Nasir K. Memon, Mohamed A. Ismail, Dalaver H. Anjum, Suk Ho Chung, One-Step Combustion Synthesis of Carbon-Coated Nanoparticles using Multiple-Diffusion Flames, 8th U. S. National Combustion Meeting, the University of Utah, USA, May 19-22, 2013.